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Cruciferous Vegetables

Last Updated: 08/27/20


  1. Topic Warning
  2. Definitions
  3. Research Results Details
  4. Other Conditions
  5. Other Conditions
  6. Sources

Sulforaphane (SFN) & Indole-3-carbinol (I3C)

Status: None Listed at this Time

Sulforaphane (SFN) is an Isothiocyanate found in cruciferous vegetables, such as; broccoli, brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, savoy cabbage, red cabbage, kale, and horseradish. SFN has been shown to exhibit chemoprotective effects for various tumors, including those of the prostate, lung, breast and colon, in vitro and in vivo. [Massachusetts General Hospital, 2016]

A study was done with SFN, extracted from cruciferous vegetables, to learn chances of to determine effectiveness with vestibular schwannoma (VS) with results of reduction of tumor cells. Cells in tumors were noted to have a reduction in only 24 hours. Schwannoma on the Vestibular Nerve has otherwise been found to be more responsive to chemical treatments than Schwannoma in other regions of the body.

SFN, is also availablein pill form, does brand matter, which brand is better, what dose is safe or ideal for each brand, or is it better to get this in food?

1. Topic Warning

Many foods and herbal options taken in concentrated forms have been found to be more harmful than helpful.

2. Definitions

  • In Vitro Fertilization/Fertilization (IVF): is a process by which an egg is fertilized by sperm outside the body: in vitro ("in glass").
  • In Vivo: (of a process) performed or taking place in a living organism.
  • Isothiocyanate: concentrated chemical component)
  • Chemoprotective Treatment: drugs which protect healthy tissue from the toxic effects of anticancer drugs, attacking only tumor cells.

3. NF2 Research Results Details

"After 48 hours of incubation with SFN (10 µM), BrdU was used to assess proliferation in cells grown from three different primary human VS, compared to untreated control group. SFN substantially and significantly (p < 0.001) reduced BrdU incorporation by primary VS cells, consistent with an anti-proliferative effect. This inhibitory effect of SFN was confirmed using two different cell lines and a different assay. Specifically, human HEI-193 cells and mouse SC4 cells were treated with 5, 10, 15 or 25 µM of SFN or vehicle control (DMSO) for 48 hours, and cell viability was assessed using an MTT assay. SFN inhibited cell viability in a dose-dependent manner." [Massachusetts General Hospital, 2016]

4. Other Contitions

SFN is also on trial for:

  1. tumor control for Breast Cancer, Recurrent Prostate Cancer, and Cystic Fibrosis
  2. Glucose control for Type 2 Diabetes
  3. core symptoms of Autism

5. Other Conditions

Lung, colorectal, breast or prostate cancers.

Cruciferous vegetables are a rich source of glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products, including indoles and isothiocyanates, and high intake of cruciferous vegetables has been associated with lower risk of lung and colorectal cancer in some epidemiological studies. Glucosinolate hydrolysis products alter the metabolism or activity of sex hormones in ways that could inhibit the development of hormone-sensitive cancers, but evidence of an inverse association between cruciferous vegetable intake and breast or prostate cancer in humans is limited and inconsistent. Organizations such as the 'National Cancer Institute' recommend the consumption of five to nine servings of fruits and vegetables daily, but separate recommendations for cruciferous vegetables have not been established."

"Isothiocyanates and indoles derived from the hydrolysis of glucosinolates, such as sulforaphane (SFN) and indole-3-carbinol (I3C), have been implicated in a variety of anticarcinogenic mechanisms, but deleterious effects also have been reported in some experimental protocols, including tumor promotion over prolonged periods of exposure."

"Epidemiological studies indicate that human exposure to isothiocyanates and indoles through cruciferous vegetable consumption may decrease cancer risk, but the protective effects may be influenced by individual genetic variation (polymorphisms) in the metabolism and elimination of isothiocyanates from the body.[Pharmacological Research, 2007]

6. Source

  1. Helsinki Declaration. "Sulforaphane, a natural component of broccoli, inhibits vestibular schwannoma growth in vitro and in vivo" Nature. Human Studies Committee of Massachusetts General Hospital. (November 2, 2016)
    Source Link: http://www.nature.com/srep/2016/161102/srep36215/full/srep36215.html | DOI: 10.1038/srep36215
  2. Higdon, Jane V., et al. "Cruciferous vegetables and human cancer risk: epidemiologic evidence and mechanistic basis." Pharmacological Research 55.3 (2007): 224-236.
    Source: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1043661807000321 | DOI: doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2007.01.009
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