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Spinal Cord and Vertebrae

Last Updated: 08/16/17


  • Voluntary Nervous System - Muscles and Movement
  • Autonomic Nervous System - Organs

Also See

  1. Peripheral Nerve System: Damage
    Peripheral Neuropathy
  2. Vitamin B12: Healing Nerve Damage
  3. Skeletal Abnormalities

Tumors in the spine can damage the PNS (Peripheral Nervous System) and depending on how extensive the damage is to the nerves it can result in Spinal Cord Compression. Spinal Cord Compression is damage to nerves in the spine that will result in issues throughout the Somatic Systems and Autonomic Systems. The Somatic Nervous System is part of the peripheral nervous system, which controls muscles and movement in different parts of the body or voluntary movements. The Autonomic Nervous System affects organs or involuntary movements.

Problems an individual could develop would be are based on the location of the tumor in the spinal cord.

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Vertebrae in the spine consist of 33 individual bones, only 24 of which are movable. The vertebrae are categorized as being part of 5 separate regions:

  • Cervical Vertebrae: C1 - C7
  • Thoraic Vertebrae: T1 - T12
  • Lumber Vertebrae: L1 - L5
  • Sacrum: S1 - S5
  • Coccyx: 4

Voluntary Nervous System - Muscles and Movement

The Voluntary Nervous System, part of the peripheral nervous system. This system controls muscles and movement in different parts of the body.

  • Neck - C1, C2, C3, C4, C5, C6, C7
  • Diaphragm - C2, C3, C4
  • Shoulder to Elbow - C4, C5
  • Wrist to Fingers - C6, C7
  • Rib Muscles - Trunk, Waist Up - T1, T2, T3, T4
  • Abdominal Muscles - T5, T6, T7, T8, T9, T10, T11, T12
  • Thigh to Toe - T12, L1, L2, L3, L4, L5
  • Sciatic Nerve - L3, L4, L5
  • Hip - L5, S1

Autonomic Nervous System - Organs

The Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) or visceral nervous system or involuntary nervous system affects organs.

  • C1 - Blood Supply the Head, Bones Of The Face, Brain Inner And Middle Ear, Ears, Eyes, Pituitary Gland, Scalp, Sympathetic Nervous System
  • C2 - Auditory Nerves, Eyes, Forehead, Heart, Mastoid Bones, Optic Nerves, Sinuses, Tongue
  • C3 - Bones, Cheeks, Face, Lungs, Outer Ear, Teeth, Trifacial Nerve
  • C4 - Eustachian Tube, Lips, Lungs, Mouth, Mucous Membranes, Nose
  • C5 - Neck Glands, Pharynx, Vocal Cords
  • C6 - Neck Muscles, Shoulders, Tonsils
  • C7- Bursa in the Shoulders, Elbows, Thyroid Gland
  • T1 - Arms from the Elbows Down, Arms, Heart, including; Hands, Wrists and Fingers, Esophagus and Trachea
  • T2 - Heart, including its Valves and Covering Coronary Arteries; Lungs Bronchial Tubes
  • T3 - Breast, Bronchial Tubes, Chest, Heart, Lungs, Pleura
  • T4 - Bronchial Tubes, Common Duct, Gallbladder, Heart, Lungs
  • T5 - Circulation (general), Esophagus, Heart, Liver, Solar Plexus, Stomach
  • T6 - Duodenum, Esophagus, Liver, Peritoneum, Stomach
  • T7 - Adrenal Cortex, Appendix, Kidneys, Large Intestine, Ovaries, Pancreas, Spleen, Testes, Uterus
  • T8 - Adrenal Cortex, Gallbladder, Liver, Pancreas, Pyloric Valve, Small Intestine, Spleen, Stomach
  • T9 - Adrenal Cortex, Gallbladder, Ovaries, Pancreas, Small Intestine, Spleen, Uterus
  • T10 - Adrenal Cortex, Appendix, Kidneys, Large Intestine, Ovaries, Pancreas, Spleen, Testes, Uterus
  • T11 - Adrenal Cortex, Adrenal Medulla, Ileocecal Valve, Kidneys, Large Intestine, Ovaries, Ureters, Urinary Bladder, Uterus
  • T12 - Ileocecal Valve, Kidneys, Large Intestine, Lymph Circulation, Small Intestine, Urinary Bladder, Uterus
  • L1 - Inguinal Rings, Large Intesine, Uterus
  • L2 - Abdomen, Appendix, Upper Leg, Urinary Bladder
  • L3 - Bladder, Knee, Large Intestine, Prostate, Sex Organs, Uterus
  • L4 - Muscles of the Lower Back, Prostate Gland, Sciatic Nerve
  • L5 - Ankles, Feet, Lower Legs, Prostate
  • Sacrum - Buttocks, Genitalia, Hip Bones, Prostate, Rectum, Sex Organs, Ureter, Urinary Bladder
  • Sacral Plexus - The Sciatic Nerves that controls Muscles, Joints and Ankles, Feet, Knees, Legs, Toes
  • Coccyx - Anus, Rectum